The international business and management literature is dominated by the national culture perspective pioneered by Hofstede (1980) with his national culture dimensions and scores, and extended by Gelfand et al. (2011), House et al. (2004) and Schwartz (1999). Our research shows that: (1) the national culture values are often similar across nations, (2) the national culture dimension scores in Hofstede and GLOBE lack convergent and discriminant validity, (3) the national culture measures of Hofstede lack face validity, (4) the projection of national culture characteristics onto individuals is a "measurement ecological fallacy", and (5) there are diverse transnational and subnational culture archetypes within and across countries. Researchers, practitioners and students of international management should avoid using the stereotype-based national culture models, and recognize both similarities and differences in culture values within and across countries for theory and practice.
- Dr. Sunil Venaik, University of Queensland Business School, Australia
Currently valued at USD 14.7 bn the domestic Pharmaceutical Market is growing at 14%. It is a highly fragmented market with over 3,000 companies (of which 550 are covered by IMS) and over 30,000 brands. Indian companies contribute to ~75% ofthe total market. The market is predominantly branded generics (~ 80%) with an average of 100 plus brands competing for doctor's attention for every commercialized molecule. While patented products account for about 1% of the market, the market has witnessed a number of patent related litigations over the vears. The prices of pharmaceuticals in India are one ofthe lowest in the world, on account ofsevere competition from local companies by the virtue of strong reverse engineering capabilities. In addition, the operating environment is not fully conducive on account ofthe governmental price controls. dated legislations, unionized trade (about 7,00,000 traditional pharmacies) and ﬁeid force (medical reps).
India has maximum numberof USFDA approved plants outside of US and exports pharmaceutical products to over 200 countries contributing to U5$ 15.5 billion revenues. india has been able to leverage its reverse engineering capabilities to tap the international market, carry out contract manufacturing and contract research. However, we are still on our journey to create a new drug discovery that is fully homegrown! The reach of pharmaceutical products to the large Indian population is still a concern. Over the years,there has been little innovation in the delivery of healthcare to the last mile! India needs higher healthcare spends by Government, enhanced efficiency of delivery networks, better utilization of technology, more Public Private Partnerships, engagement with academia to establish models (eg. Intellectual property, technology transfer processes) and better governmental incentives to enhance sectoral investments to take the Industry to the next level.
- Mr Jawed Zia, Head CPO & Country President, Novartis India
Sustainability initiatives are at the forefront of many firms' agendas today. Consumers and government mandates are both calling for environment-friendly business practices. In this presentation, we will examine sustainability issues from two perspectives.
Remanufacturing is one approach to sustainability, with benefits that include the diversion of discarded products from landfills, reduced virgin raw material usage, and energy consumption lower than in original manufacturing. It is perceived as an environment-friendly end-of-use management option for many product categories. For example, remanufacturing in the auto industry saves over 80% of the energy and raw material required to manufacture a new part, and keeps used parts out of landfills. It has also been observed that remanufacturing consumes less energy than does manufacturing of new products, and evidence suggests that remanufacturing can be superior to recycling in material consumption and overall environmental impact. Since remanufacturing activities can either be performed in-house or outsourced, we attempt to understand the drivers of when either one of the two alternatives are superior not only in terms of profitability but also in terms of environmental impact.
A second focus is to evaluate policy decisions for product disposal and reuse. Given that consumer electronics have become an integral part of daily life and revolutionized the way we live, an associated downside is that more than 50 million tons of e-waste were discarded in 2009 and 72 million tons are expected to be disposed in 2014. Hence, government incentives and legislations are now used to facilitate end-of-life/end-of-use management of electronic products. This includes (but not limited to) refurbishment or remanufacturing, recycling e-waste and disposal. Based on practice, we evaluate three alternative mandates from the perspective of the consumer, the firm, and the environment.
- Prof. Asoo J. Vakharia, Warrington College of Business Administration, University of Florida